The Letter, Issue 37, Summer 2006, Pages 38 - 55
FREUD'S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Stephen J. Costello
I: Freud and liberalism
The aim of this paper is to explore Freud's political philosophy, to examine his description of himself as a liberal, to outline and define the liberal and conservative doctrines, to situate them within the broader philosophical tradition and to suggest that Freud is an admixture of the liberal and the conservative, a man then who defies easy definition.
That Freud viewed himself as a liberal is not in doubt as the following quotation from a letter of his indicates in which he states: 'I remain a liberal of the old school'. Freud's supposed liberalism has been largely adumbrated, albeit in a wholly unsystematic and unstructured way, in three main works: Why War?, Thoughts for the Time on War and Death and in his great cultural commentary Civilization and Its Discontents. Drawing on these and other works, I will outline Freud's political philosophy under four main headings: (1) the rule of law, (2) liberty, (3) distributive justice, and (4) just war theory. But, first, some brief, general comments on the relationship between psychoanalysis and politics.